Valley of Gudbrandsdalen, Norway

The Gudbrandsdalen valley is one of the most populated valleys in Norway, extending roughly 140 km from the town of Lillehammer in the south to the village of Dombås in the north. The area has abundant flood plains along the river, which are extensively used as farmland. Furthermore, due to the scarcity of other available … Continued

The Pyrenees, Spain-France

In the Pyrenees, as well as other European mountains, studies have indicated that landslides and subsequent flooding have decreased in places where the forest has conquered past grasslands, especially in the highest part of pastures. In some cases, reforestation has demonstrated its usefulness in coping with hydro-climatic extreme events by reducing the hazard intensity. However, … Continued

Kaunertal valley, Austria

Kaunertal Valley in western Austria is experiencing glacier retreat, and the southern part of the valley, the ‘Gepatschferner’ glacier, is one of the fastest melting glaciers in Austria. This glacier retreat leaves unconsolidated sediments in steep lateral moraines exposed to erosion and subsequently rock fall, debris flows, and shallow landslides decreasing the slope stability in … Continued

Isar River Basin, Germany

The Isar river is one of the principal affluents of the Danube, sourced in the Alps, and crosses the Bavarian capital Munich. Heavy rain events in the Alps in 1999, 2005, and 2013 led to significant floods. For example, in June 2013, flood damage costs amounted to € 1.3 billion in Bavaria, Germany (BSUV, 2014). … Continued

Serchio River Basin, Italy

The Serchio River Basin is defined as a basin of national interest according to Italian law. It has been identified as a ‘river basin district’ for implementing the EU’s Water Framework Directive. The unique combination of challenges that are present includes extreme drought and flooding, seismic risk as well as water pollution. The “Autorita di … Continued